Sunday, 12 October 2014



Hari ni macam semalam jugak..
Aku duduk dekat rumah je..
Tak kemana-mana pun..

Disebabkan semalam dah purchase internet..
Semalam pun dah carik info sikit..
Hari ni pun aku sorang je dekat rumah..
So lepas makan tadi aku study la..

Aku memang budak baru belajar..
Tapi nak share la sikit la apa aku belajar tadi..
Sebenarnya semua info ni pun dari internet..
Cuma aku compile as aku punya nota sendiri..

Lets talk about Pre-salt..
Sape yang geologist dan bidang seangkatan lagi expert la..
 So sape-sape yang tersinggah blog aku ni bole la baca pasal benda ni..
Sekadar berkongsi pengatahuan..

Pre-Salt Layer

  • ·         A geological formation on the continental shelves.(The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent (benua), resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods.)
  • ·         It is the geological layers that were laid down before a salt layer accumulated above them during the Gondwana breakup.
  • ·         Some of the petroleum that was formed in the pre-salt layer has not leaked upward to the post-salt layers above.
  • ·         This is especially common off the coast of Africa and Brazil.
  • ·         The amount of oil is not well known but is thought to be a significant fraction of world oil reserves.
  • ·         According to Petrobras, the oil and natural gas lie below an approximately 2000m deep layer of salt, itself below an approximately 2000m deep layer of rock under 2000-3000 m of the Atlantic.
  • ·         Drilling through the rock and salt to extract the pre-salt oil and gas is very expensive.

Contoh gambar untuk lagi faham..
Banyak lagi dekat internet kalau nak refer..

Pre-salt layer in Brazil

  • ·         The current findings from Petrobras and other company in the province of the Pre-Salt, located in the Brazillian continental shelf, can mean reserves of over 50 billion barrels of oil, a volume four times greater than the current national reserves, roughly 14 billion barrels.
  • ·        In this province, there may be large oil and natural gas reserves located under salt layers that extend for 800 kilometers along the Brazilian coast – from the state of Santa Catarina coast to the coast of Espirito Santo – up to 200 km wide.
  • ·        Some estimates give the total area of the Pre-salt as 122,000 km2. Of this total, concessions have already been granted for 41,000 km2 and 71,000 km2 have not yet been tendered.
  • ·         Pre-salt oil is of good quality, although it is found in reserves that are in deep-sea areas and under thick layers of salt, requiring large-scale investment to extract it.
Harap sedikit info ni bermanfaat kepada sesiapa yang singgah dekat blog ni..


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